Space-time cluster analysis of sea lice infestation (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on wild juvenile Pacific salmon in the Broughton Archipelago of Canada
Patanasatienkul T, Sanchez J, Rees EE, Pfeiffer D, Revie CW
Preventive Veterinary Medicine 120:219-231
Sea lice infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago region are known to vary spatially and temporally; however, the locations of areas associated with a high infestation level had not been investigated yet. In the present study, the multivariate spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model was used to assess spatial clustering of elevated sea lice (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon sampled between March and July of 2004 to 2012 in the Broughton Archipelago and Knight Inlet regions of British Columbia, Canada. Three covariates, seine type (beach and purse seining), fish size, and year effect, were used to provide adjustment within the analyses. The analyses were carried out across the five months/datasets and between two fish species to assess the consistency of the identified clusters. Sea lice stages were explored separately for the early life stages (non-motile) and the late life stages of sea lice (motile). Spatial patterns in fish migration were also explored using monthly plots showing the average number of each fish species captured per sampling site. The results revealed three clusters for non-motile C. clemensi, two clusters for non-motile L. salmonis, and one cluster for the motile stage in each of the sea lice species. In general, the location and timing of clusters detected for both fish species were similar. Early in the season, the clusters of elevated sea lice infestation levels on wild fish are detected in areas closer to the rivers, with decreasing relative risks as the season progresses. Clusters were detected further from the estuaries later in the season, accompanied by increasing relative risks. In addition, the plots for fish migration exhibit similar patterns for both fish species in that, as expected, the juveniles move from the rivers toward the open ocean as the season progresses The identification of space-time clustering of infestation on wild fish from this study can help in targeting investigations of factors associated with these infestations and thereby support the development of more effective sea lice control measures.
This study was published on June 15th 2015 in Preventive Veterinary Medicine.
It can be accessed from that journal's web site at - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167587715001014
Spatial patterns of sea lice infection among wild and captive salmon in western Canada
Rees EE, St-Hiilaire S, Jones SRM, Krkosek M, DeDominicis S, Foreman MGG, Patanasatienkul T, Revie CW
Landscape Ecology 30:898-1004
Context: Parasite transmission between captive and wild fish is mediated by spatial, abiotic, biotic, and management factors.
More effective population management and conservation strategies can result from multivariable assessments of factors associated
with spatial dynamics of parasite spillover.
Objective: Our study characterised spatial patterns of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Caligus clemensi) infection on out-migrating chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and pink (O. gorbuscha) salmon in an area with Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming. Methods A multivariable statistical model for sea louse parasitism of out-migrating chum and pink salmon was developed from 166,316 wild salmon sampled in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada from 2003 to 2012. We assessed for factors hypothesized to influence sea lice infection levels, at the non-motile life stage, including spatial scales of infection sources.
Results: Fish length, sampling year and method were strong explanatory factors. Infection was greatest in higher salinity water. Farmed and wild juvenile salmon infection levels were correlated, on average, within 30 km. Except for 2004, sea lice infection on farms were typically well below the regulatory level (3 motiles per fish). Average intensity of non-motile infections observed on the wild fish were 6.36 (SD = 9.98) in 2004 compared to 1.66 (SD = 1.25) for the other years.
Conclusions: Accuracy of future model estimates will benefit by including hydrodynamic data accounting for anisotropic spread of sea lice from sources. Multivariable statistical modelling over long time series data strengthens understanding of factors impacting wild juvenile salmon infection levels and informs spatial patterns of aquatic epidemiology.
This study was published online on March 29th 2015 in Landscape Ecology.
It can be accessed from that journal's web site at - http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10980-015-0188-2
Sea lice infestations on juvenile chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada from 2003 to 2012
Patanasatienkul T, Sanchez J, Rees EE, Krkosek M, Jones SRM, Revie CW
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 105:149-161
Juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the two main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested that there was inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, though the nature of this effect differed according to host species.
This study was published on July 22nd 2013 in Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.
It can be accessed from that journal's web site at - http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/dao/v105/n2/p149-161/
Modeling Parasite Dynamics on Farmed Salmon for Precautionary Conservation Management of Wild Salmon
Rogers LA, Peacock SJ, McKenzie P, DeDominicis S, Jones SRM, Chandler P, Foreman MGG, Revie CW, Krkosek M
PLoS ONE 8(4): e60096. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060096
Conservation management of wild fish may include fish health management in sympatric populations of domesticated fish in aquaculture. We developed a mathematical model for the population dynamics of parasitic sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on domesticated populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in the Broughton Archipelago region of British Columbia. The model was fit to a seven-year dataset of monthly sea louse counts on farms in the area to estimate population growth rates in relation to abiotic factors (temperature and salinity), local host density (measured as cohort surface area), and the use of a parasiticide, emamectin benzoate, on farms. We then used the model to evaluate management scenarios in relation to policy guidelines that seek to keep motile louse abundance below an average three per farmed salmon during the March - June juvenile wild Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) migration. Abiotic factors mediated the duration of effectiveness of parasiticide treatments, and results suggest treatment of farmed salmon conducted in January or early February minimized average louse abundance per farmed salmon during the juvenile wild salmon migration. Adapting the management of parasites on farmed salmon according to migrations of wild salmon may therefore provide a precautionary approach to conserving wild salmon populations in salmon farming regions.
This study was published on April 5th 2013 in PLoS ONE.
It can be accessed from that journal's web site at - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0060096